- Generic Name: Amoxicillin
- Brand Name: Amoxil/Mymox/Amoxin/Amoxivan/Amoksiklav/Bactox/Cilamox/Moxatag
- Active ingredient: Amoxicillin trihydrate
- Used for: The treatment infections caused by certain bacteria
- Dosages (mg): 250/500/650/1000
- Drug Class: Penicillin-like Antibiotics
- Amoxicillin Definition
- Amoxicillin Applications
- Contraindications: Is Amoxicillin Right for Me?
- Amoxicillin Health Effects and Benefits
- Possible Side-Effects
- Amoxicillin Food and Drug Interactions
- List of Medicines the Combination with Which Is Dangerous
- Safety Note
- Storage Requirements
- Amoxicillin Full List of Ingredients
- Customers Questions about Amoxicillin
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic belonging to penicillanic group of wide spectrum of effect. It is distinguished by the bactericidal action resulting from inhibition of synthesis of a bacterial cell wall. Amoxicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis in the period of segmentation and growth, and causes lyse of bacteria. This drug is active in regards to Gram-positive and Gram-variable cocci. It influences Staphylococcus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitides, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, some strains of Salmonella, Shigella Klebsiella и Haemophilus influenzae.
Amoxicillin is indicative for peroral therapy of the following transmissible diseases caused by amoxicillin vulnerable Gram-positive and Gram-variable pathogens:
- upper respiratory infections: infections of ear, nose and throat: acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, and bacterial pharyngitis;
- low respiratory tract infections: exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia;
- infections of lower segments of kidney tract: cystitis;
- infections of gastrointestinal tract: bacterial enteritis. A combined treatment may be required in case of infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms;
- endocarditis: preventive measures against endocarditis among patients of high-risk group of this disease development should be performed, for instance while carrying out dental treatment.
This medication is taken by mouth. Adults and children above 10 years (with mass of the body more than 40kg) are assigned 0,5g (2 capsules) 3 times per day; in case of severe acute infection the dose is increased to 1,0g (4 capsules) 3 times per day. Maximum daily dose is 6g (24 capsules). For adults and children an interval between intakes is 8 hours. Therapy regimen makes up 5-12 days (for streptococcal infection – not less than 10 days).
Contraindications: Is Amoxicillin Right for Me?
Amoxicillin has a number of precautions you should remember before using this drug.
- hypersensitivity to penicillin;
- possibility of polyvalent allergy with other betalactam antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, carbapenems.
Amoxicillin must be taken with care:
- by patients suffering from allergic diathesis and asthma;
- by patients suffering from nephatony, since clearance of amoxicillin slows down. This may require reduction of the daily drug’s dose;
- by newly born and premature infants: it is required to monitor functioning of kidney, hepatic and hematologic indicators;
- amoxicillin is to be taken carefully by patients suffering from virus infections, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and glandular fever (due to high risk of erythematous rash).
Health Effects and Benefits
This medicine is distinguished by its beneficial impact on organism:
- Amoxicillin inhibits transpeptidase, damages peptidoglucan synthesis (supporting protide of a cell wall) synthesis in the period of segmentation and growth, causes lyse of bacteria.
- The drug has a wide spectrum of effect. It is active towards aerobic Gram-positive organisms – Staphylococcus spp. (except for strains producing beta-lactamase), Streptococcus spp.,including Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, aerobic Gram-variable microorganisms — Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, some of the strains Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, as well as Helicobacter pylori.
- Amoxicillin is absorbed very fast and well (75-90%) and distributed in tissues and liquids of organism. It may be found in blood in 1 hour after intake and lasts 6-8 hours on therapeutic level. It is stable in acid environment; thus, the time and type of food doesn’t affect its absorption.
Side-effects of Amoxicillin are classified in a certain way:
- Often: 10% or more rarely, but more often 1%
- Not often: 1% or more rarely, but more often 0,1%
- Seldom: 0,1% or more rarely; but more often 1,01%
- Very seldom, including isolated occurrences: 0,01% or more rarely.
Pathogenic diseases and infection contamination
Long-term and repeated use of a medication may lead to superinfection development as well as colonization of resistant microorganisms or fungus, for instance oral and vaginal candidiasis.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Eosinophilia and hemolytic anemia may take place.
There may occur registered and insolated cases of leucocytopenia, granulocytopaenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, anemia, myelosuppression, granulophtisis. enhancement of coagulation and self-thromboplastin-prothrombin time.
Immune system disorders
There are swelling of the larynx, serum disease, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock in rare cases.
Central nervous system’s reactions may occur rarely and include hyperkinesis, vertigo, cramps. Also, patients suffering from nephatony may have cramps as a result of large dose of the drug.
A patient may suffer from sensation of discomfort, loss of appetite, vomit, flatulency, thin stool, enanthesis (especially in mouth cavity), dryness of the mouth, flavor sensation disorders. As a rule, the enumerated effects are characterized by light form of severity level and go away in the course of continuation therapy and very fast after its termination. One is able to reduce the level of morbidity with the help of amoxicillin intake with food.
In case of severe persistent diarrhea, the possibility of a very rare complication, pseudomembranous colitis, should be taken into account. Administration of medications suppressing vermicular movement is strictly prohibited.
Black coloring of tongue may occur.
Heparic and bile-excreting system disorders
Transient enhancement of liver enzyme level may take place. Also, rare cases of hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice may be met.
Skin and subcutaneous fat disorders
A patient may have skin reactions in form of exanthemata, itch, and urticarial fever. Typical morbilliform exanthema occurs on the 5th-11th day from the therapy beginning. Urticarial fever shows an allergic reaction to amoxicillin and requires treatment termination.
A patient may have angioneurotic edema (Quincke’s disease), exudative erythema multiforme, empyesis, Stereos-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and bullous and exfoliative dermatitis.
An acute interstitial nephritis may occur in rare cases.
Drug fever may develop in rare cases.
Amoxicillin Food and Drug Interactions
Amoxicillin is absorbed very fast and well (75-90%) and distributed in tissues and liquids of organism. It may be found in blood in 1 hour after intake and lasts 6-8 hours on therapeutic level. It is stable in acid environment; thus, the time and type of food doesn’t affect its absorption.
Amoxicillin with alcohol
Experts prohibit taking these products together, since interaction of amoxicillin with alcoholic drinks may cause a severe allergy and in some cases a fatal outcome is possible. Even upon the whole therapy course, it is not recommended to drink alcohol. You may start drinking in 10 days after treatment.
Consequences of combined usage of amoxicillin with alcohol:
- Alcohol decreases efficiency of antibiotics treatment.
- Side-effects on digestive tract (vomit, sickliness, diarrhea) caused by amoxicillin and those ones caused by alcohol duplicate when the substances are taken simultaneously.
- Amoxicillin along with alcohol may cause irregularity and difficulty of respiration.
- Alcoholic beverages make absorption rate of the drug higher resulting in high concentration of medications in blood. This may threaten with strong intoxication of organism.
Amoxicillin with other drugs
- Amoxicillin may reduce the efficiency of contraceptives for internal use.
- Simultaneous intake of the medicine with antibacterial antibiotics (amino glycosides, cephalosporins, cycloserine, vancomycin, rifampicin) shows synergism; whereas combination with bacteriostatic antibiotics (macrolide, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, tetracyclines, sulfanilamides) causes antagonism.
- Amoxicillin enhances action of indirect anticoagulants inhibiting gut organisms and decreasing vitamin K synthesis and prothrombin ratio.
- Amoxicillin reduces effect of medications in the process of metabolism of which p-aminobenzoic acid is created.
- Probenecid, diuretics, allopurinol, phenylbutazone, NSAIDs decrease tubular secretion of amoxicillin which may be accompanied by its concentration in blood plasma.
- Antiacids, glucosamine, apocathartics, amino glycosides slow down and reduce absorption of amoxicillin, whereas antiscorbutic vitamin increases it.
List of Medicines the Combination with Which Is Dangerous
- Metronidazole causes vomit, sickliness, anorexia, diarrhea, uncleared bowels, epigastric pain, glossitis, stomatitis, etc.
- Clavulanic acid may trigger for cholestatic jaundice, erythema multiform, hepatitis, etc.
- Allopurinol with amoxicillin causes allergenic skin reactions.
- Digoxin may be absorbed faster under pressure of amoxicillin treatment.
- Anticoagulants along with amoxicillin may increase the probability of bleeding due to prolongation of clotting time. This combination must be monitored in accordance with homeostatic indicators.
- Probenecid inhibits clearance of amoxicillin through kidney and leads to increased concentration of amoxicillin in bilis and blood.
- Other antibiotics raise the probability of antagonism of amoxicillin’s action (macrolides, tetracyclines, sulfanilamides, and chloramphenicol).
- Methotrexate along with amoxicillin may enhance the degree of methotrexate toxic potential.
- Peroral hormonal contraceptives must be taken with care. Amoxicillin may cause transient reduction of estrogen and progesterone concentration in blood and decrease efficiency of contraceptives.
Before you start taking amoxicillin, you must make sure that you are not hypersensitive to penicillin and cephalosporin. In case of severe disorders of the digestive tract, amoxicillin is counter-indicative, since these conditions may reduce its absorption. Long-term Amoxicillin usage may cause growth of bacteria and phungi unsensitive to its action.
Application during pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy and lactation, the drug is administered only in cases when expected benefit for mother exceeds potential risk for an unborn child. If Amoxicillin is required, it is better to terminate lactation.
Application in case of decreased kidney function
Patients suffering from nephatony may have slow clearance of Amoxicillin. This will require decrease of drug’s daily dose.
Generally, Amoxicillin doesn’t cause acute toxic effects, even in case of high dosage. Overdose may appear with symptoms of gastro-enteric upsets because of water and electrolyte imbalance. Amoxicillin doesn’t have any antidote. Therapy includes taking absorbent carbon or symptomatic measures. Special attention should be paid to hydro-electrolytic balance. Hemodialysis application is possible.
Children may take this medicine according to dosage regimen.
Amoxicillin Storage Requirements
Period of validity: 4 years. You must not take Amoxicillin after shelf-life expiration. Store it in dry cool light-proof place not above 25°С. Keep out of reach of children.
Amoxicillin Full List of Ingredients
Active substances: amoxicillin, amoxicillin trihydrate.
Additive agents: stearate magnesium, polyvidone, amylum natrium glycol, cryptocrystalline cellulose.
Customers Questions about Amoxicillin
Can I take Amoxicillin along with vitamin C?
Combined usage of Amoxicillin with vitamin C is possible for the main indication. Vitamin C contributes to a good absorption pf the medicine’s active substance.
My therapist assigned Amoxicillin to me, whereas my gynecologist prescribed ciprolloxacin. Can I take them simultaneously?
Combined intake of several antibiotics is not recommended.
I take Amoxicillin, but suddenly my tooth got sick. Can I take Ketorolac within the main treatment course?
These medications are not counter-indicative to each other. Simultaneous intake is possible.
Is it safe to use Ventolin during pregnancy or lactation?
During pregnancy and lactation, the drug is administered only in cases when expected benefit for mother exceeds potential risk for unborn child.
How should I take Amoxicillin?
This medication is taken by mouth. Adults and children above 10 years (with mass of the body more than 40kg) are assigned 0,5g (2 capsules) 3 times per day; in case of severe acute infection the dose is increased to 1,0g (4 capsules) 3 times per day. Maximum daily dose is 6g (24 capsules).
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